The Prophet

Mohammad ibn Abdullah

(Peace be upon him and his Progey)


The Syed of Messengers and a Mercy for all the People of the World, Being in the Highest Part of the Horizon[1] and Utmost Nearness[2] unto Allah. The Ornament of the Prophets, His Holiness Mustafa (peace be upon him and his progeny). His auspicious name Mohammad and his father Abdullah bin Abdulmutalib bin Hashim bin Abd-e-Manaf bin Qusay bin Kilab bin Morra ibn Ka'b bin Lovay bin Ghalib bin Fihr bin Malik bin Nadr bin Nozar bin Ma'd bin, Adnan. The lineage of Adnan, through some intermediaries, reaches Hazrat Ismael bin Ibrahim (AS). His esteemed mother is lady Aminah Khatoon bint Wahb bin Abd-e-Manaf bin Qusay bin kalab bin morra. His blessed title is Abulqasem. The birthplace of his holy essence is Mecca, the Revered.

His Holiness was born on Friday, the 17th of Rabi al-Awal, according to the 28th of the month of Nisan, the 20th of the month of Shabbat of Rome and the 17th of the Iranian month of Dey, 55 days after the event of the elephant in the year 571 AD. His honourable grandfather, His Excellency Abdullah, two months before his birth had passed away. His Holiness suckled from his mother's breast for a week; then, due to the scarcity of his mother's milk, Thuwaibah, a slave girl of Abu Lahab who was freed as a reward for the birth of His Holiness, breadfeeded him for three months. Then, according to the tradition of the Arab elders, who took wet nurses from the Bedouin Arabs for their children so that the open air of the Bedouin would raise the children brave and eloquent. His Holiness was entrusted to Halima bint Abdullah bin Al-Harith A-Saad. Before accepting His Holiness, Halima did not have enough milk to breastfeed her child; one of her breasts was dry. Her breasts were filled with milk as soon as His Holiness came to her side. After two years, when the breastfeeding was over, Halima brought His Holiness to Mecca to meet his mother and relatives, but due to her excessive fondness which she had for His Holiness, she obtained permission from his grandfather, His Excellency Abdulmutalib and his mother to take him back to the desert with her and keep him for another two or three years. Then she brought him to Mecca when he was five years old and handed him to his mother and grandfather. His Holiness reached age six; his mother passed away in Abwa area while returning from visiting relatives in Medina. He was placed under Umme Ayman's custody and guardianship of his grandfather Abdulmutalib.

After two years, when His Holiness was eight years old, his grandfather also passed away, entrusted His Holiness to His Excellency Abu Talib, and recommended much about him. His Excellency Abu Talib, either before the prophetic mission to prophethood and either after that moment, did not refrain from protecting and supporting His Holiness and preferred him to his children in all respects, and when he was 12 years old, he took him to Damascus for a trade trip and according to the hint and advise of Bahira the Christain monk who saw the signs of prophecy in his holy face, warned Abu Talib about the cunning of the Jews in regards to His Holiness and to return him back to Mecca soon. Then His Holiness, at the age of 25, went to Damascus to trade on behalf of Khadijah bint Khuwaylid and returned safely with profit; after returning from Damascus and based on showing affection and inclination by Khadijah towards marrying him, took Khadijah in wedlock.

When his blessed age reached 35 years, during the repair of the Kaaba by the Quraysh, in the dispute and disagreement among them that arose for carrying and installation of the Hajar ul-Aswad "Black stone", he arbitrated and instructed that the Hajar ul-Aswad be put on a sheet of cloth, and all of them together lifted it and then His Holiness took it and put it on the base of the wall of the House, and installed it on the Iraqi pillar. Gradually a tendency to isolation was found in His Holiness, and every year, he used to spend one month in the Cave of Hira in solitude and was contentment with the bit of food his family brought him till the time of the prophetic mission came closer, and its effects manifested on him; sometimes, in solitude, he would hear the voice of an angel without seeing it and would learn things from it till his blessed age reached forty. On the night of the 27th of Rajab, he was given the Divine leadership of the created beings that night; Gabriel descended on His Holiness himself and appeared to him in the form mentioned in the narrations and conveyed the divine command to His Holiness. "Read in the name of thy Lord who created"[3], and this time was the year 611 AD, and from then after, the revelation of the Quranic verses began gradually.

His Holiness invited people to Islam confidentially and in secret for three years. Gradually the people of Mecca noticed his invitation in corners and brink, the people brought faith in His Holiness, and a few Muslims appeared, and his prophetic mission and invitation news were spread among the Quraysh. Until the third year of the mission reached. According to the decree: "So proclaim what you have been commanded and turn away from the polytheists"[4]. His Holiness revealed the divine invitation and mocked and cursed the idols, so the persecution of the polytheists towards His Holiness and his followers began and intensified gradually until the fifth year of the prophetic mission; the severity of persecution of the Quraysh infidels intensified and became the cause that His Holiness permitted some Muslims to emigrate who did not have a tribe and did not have the power to remove the persecution of the infidels.

The number of the first Islamic immigrants was about 15 men and women who returned after three months of stay in Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Two years later, in the seventh year of the mission, the elders of Mecca and the leaders of the Quraysh forbade transactions and marriage and socializing, even conversation with His Holiness and his followers, and wrote a pact on this subject and hung it in the Kaaba and pursued it with seriousness in tormenting and extermination of His Holiness and the Muslims. Therefore, again some 83 men and 12 women from the Muslims emigrated to Abyssinia, and His Excellency Abu Talib placed His Holiness with the rest of the Muslims in the Shi’b (valley) of Abu Talib to protect their lives, and they lived there for almost three years in discomfort and hardship in all respects. Until some of the Quraysh who were inclined towards the Bani Hashem got tired from hostility and stubbornness with His Holiness, and after expressing hatred and disgust about it, they abrogated that sinister pact that the termite had eaten it and the Holy Prophet with his companions and families returned to their houses in Mecca. And in the middle of that year which was the 10th year of the mission, His Excellency Abu Talib, who was more than 70 years old, passed away and a great ostensible protector and supporter of His Holiness went and after 35 days from this time his dear devoted wife Khadijah also passed away at the age of 65 years and a tragic upon tragic was added to his sacred heart and because of this two events, his holy heart was filled with sorrow and pain; therefore that year was called "the year of sorrow".

After the death of Abu Talib, his brother Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib became the leader of the tribe and Emir of Mecca. Because he was a meek man and did not have the necessary authority and awesomeness, the infidels of Quraysh again persecuted the Prophet and the Muslims with intensity and violence as such that His Holiness was compelled to flee to Taif and stayed in Taif for a month and since there was no one to guide there and no helper and supporter were found; he took the road back to Mecca. The enemies were informed of his intention to return and decided to prevent him from entering Mecca, but one of them, by the name of Mut'am bin Addi, objected to this and took His Holiness to Mecca under his safety and placed him in his house. He and his children stood up to protect His Holiness until, in the eleventh year of the mission, six persons from Medina who came to Mecca for the usual Hajj at that time secretly met with him and brought faith in him, and after returning to Medina, they spread the subject of the Prophet's mission in Medina, invited and encouraged the people to Islam.

In the 12th year of the mission, the Ascension of His Holiness took place, and according to "Exalted is He who took His Servant by night"[5], In the 13th year, seventy men and three women from the people of Medina from the Khazraj tribe who had come to Mecca for their customary Hajj, secretly in Laylat ul-Aqaba, met His Holiness and brought faith and pledged allegiance to him and sacrifice their lives and property in his way. At the time of departure, the Prophet appointed twelve representatives from among them and sent Musab ibn Zubayr to Medina to teach Islam and the Quran and the rules of religion, and many of the people of Medina became Muslims. When the infidels of Quraysh became aware of what happened in Medina, they became determined to kill and eradicate him, and according to the divine command, His Holiness decided to emigrate to Medina and took preparatory steps and sent most of the companions to Medina gradually.

Then His Holiness, on the night of the first day of Rabi ul-Awal in the 13th year of the mission, in the night when the infidels of Quraysh had decided together to attack his house and kill him, he summoned Ali (AS) and handed over the deposits given in trust to him by the people to Ali (AS) to return them to their rightful owners and gave necessary instructions to move his family to Medina. Then he told Ali (AS) to delude the infidels, he should sleep in his place in his bed and left with Abu Bakr at night and after stopping three nights in the Cave of Saur, on the third dawn went towards Medina and on Saturday twelfth of Rabi ul-Awal reached the village of Quba which was four miles to Medina and stayed in the house of someone called Kulthum bin Hadim and at the request of the people he built the Quba Mosque, and Ali (AS) who had left Mecca according to the instructions, three days after His Holiness joined him in Quba. And His Holiness, after 14 nights staying in Quba, departed to the city of Medina and bought a piece of land that now is his holy Shrine, which is a sanctuary for circumambulating for the world and built a house for himself and a mosque for prayers. And after five months of settling in Medina, one day gathered all the companions from the emigrants and Ansars in an assembly and between every two persons made a brotherhood and made them brothers in everything except for Ali (AS); he did not appoint a brother for him. Ali (AS) said O Messenger of God, you did not appoint a brother for me? Said: You are my brother in this world and hereafter, and this was the first time Ali's (AS) superiority became known to others.

Then, in the 2nd year of the Hijrat, he agreed for his daughter Fatemeh Zahra (SA) to be married to Ali (AS), and His Holiness himself had already married Aisha, the daughter of Abu Bakr. At this time, the descent of religious commandments started and was executed gradually. In the first and second years of the Hijrat, the commandments of jihad, fasting, zakat of property, the changing of the qibla, praying in Islamic festivals and in the third year, the sanctity of wine and others also consecutively and gradually, the commandments of Shariat descended and was implemented. From the time of the revelation of the jihad's commandments until the end of his life, according to history and chronicles, His Holiness went to war with the polytheists and infidels 75 times; 27 of those wars were with his presence, and under his personal commandership namely "Ghazavat". And 48 times the war was made through the commanders he appointed and sent are known as "Saraya". Now it suffices to mention the battles that His Holiness was present.

1.Abwa 2.Bowat 3.Oshayrah 4.Badr-e-oola 5.Badr-e-kobra 6.Bani Qayoqa 7.Saviq 8.Qarqarat ul-Keder or Bani solaym 9.Qatfan 10.Ohad 11.Hamra ul-Asad 12.Bani Nozayr 13.Badr-e-Soghra 14.Ban el-Moustaliq 15.Khandaq 16.Bani Qorayzah 17.Doomat ul-Jandah 18.Zat ul-Righa 19.Bani Lihyan 20.Zigarad 21.Hodaybiyah 22.Kheybar 23.Zat ul-Salasil 24.Mecca conquest 25.Honayn 26.Tayif conquest 27.Tabook. It is impossible to describe each of them in this brief biography.

His Holiness was heavily involved in the work and adjustments of Muslim affairs and their properties since arriving in Medina. Because on the other hand, made efforts to create religious interest and brotherhood love between the immigrants who came to Medina from outside and the Ansars who lived in Medina and settled the immigrants in their houses to preserve Islamic chastity and not harm the brotherly love and on the other hand engaged in propagation and implementations of religious commandments that were gradually revealed, and on the other side caught in the establishment of internal order and security in Medina and its suburbs against the opposition of the Jews living there and hospitality and care of the migrants and incoming visitors and answering their questions, who were constantly coming to Medina from all round, and from the point of view of being ready and equipping Muslims continuously, to defend themselves against the possible attack of the enemies or to engage in necessary war and jihad with them. And the hardest of all was the efforts that His Holiness endured in educating the morals of Muslims, for creating the spirit of honesty, trust, purity, and virtue in Muslims who were from different tribes and each had their own specific habits, customs, and morals, and putting these different people in unique Islamic array and creating a sense of unity and coherence among them, and cultivating the spirit of complete obedience to their commander in the battles was very difficult, exhausting, and somewhat impractical. But His Holiness, with his hard work and effort, his composure, and his excellent speech, brought all these levels to the stage of action. More above all, his holy nature, with this preoccupation and occupation, he interacted with all his companions and associates with pleasantness, kindness, warmth, and love; moreover, according to the confirmation of his contemporaries, His God also praised him in this regard as He said to His Holiness, "And you (O Mohammad) are indeed a man of outstanding character"[6].

In short, the sixth year of Hijrat reached; in this year, according to a dream he had seen, he set out for Mecca in the month of Dhūl Qaʿdah to perform the Hajj pilgrimage, and one thousand four hundred Muslims set out with him. The infidels of Quraysh were informed of His Holiness' intention; although no one had been barred from performing Hajj until then, they decided to prevent His Holiness from entering Mecca and sent Khalid ibn Walid and Makr bin Abi Jahl to stop His Holiness outside Mecca with an armed group and to prevent His Holiness from entering Mecca. When His Holiness reached the distance of the two halting places of Mecca, he became aware of this situation, and since it was a forbidden month, he did not want to enter into war with them. He turned away from the straight road and took a deviated way towards Mecca till he reached a place called Hodaybiyah. He stopped there and consulted with his companions about how he should treat Quraysh against this action. The companions each showed a way; in the meantime, Badil bin Varagha came to His Holiness and said. What is your intention, and for what purpose do you want to enter Mecca? Said: Just for Hajj pilgrimage. Badil said: If you allow me, I will inform your intention to Quraysh; maybe they will find peace of mind from your intention and give up trying to obstruct you. His Holiness allowed him to go and discuss the matter with the Quraysh and advised them that prevention from performing Hajj is not a righteous act. But they did not accept it, and for further information on the intention of the Holy Prophet (SAW), they sent Orwa ibn Massoud to the Prophet. He also replied that he had no purpose other than performing the Hajj pilgrimage. The Quraysh were still unsure and unconvinced and sent Holaice bin Alghamah to the camp of His Holiness for more information. To reassure Holaice, His Holiness said to bring the camels they had brought to be sacrificed in front of him. He returned to Mecca after ensuring that the Muslims had no intention other than to perform the Hajj pilgrimage; he returned to Mecca and blamed the Quraysh for forbidding the group that had come to perform the Hajj rituals from entering Mecca. But his words did not help, and their stubbornness did not decrease. Finally, His Holiness sent Uthman with ten of his companions to the Quraysh to convince them and end this matter happily if possible. The Quraysh, in exchange, seized Uthman and prevented him from returning, and a false rumour spread among the companions of the Prophet (SAW) that Uthman had been killed in Mecca. This rumour caused intense rage, agitation and tumult for the Muslims. His Holiness (SAW) gathered all his companions to confront the infidels till the last breath and sacrifice their lives in jihad; again, they pledged allegiance (Bayat) and this allegiance was known as A-Rizwan allegiance (Bayat u-Rizwan).

The news of the Muslim uprising reached the people of Mecca; some persons were sent to the Prophet's camp to investigate the case, and the Muslims held them as captives in the Prophet's Camp instead of Uthman. Finally, the Meccan people sent Sohail ibn Amr to negotiate with His Holiness, and the issue led to the writing of a Peace Pact with the following articles:

1. The abandonment of war between the Holy Prophet (SAW) and the Quraysh from the date of the Peace Pact for up to ten years.

2. The two parties should be safe at all times during the period of the Peace Pact.

3. Not prevent and stop harassing anyone who wants to join the other party.

4. If someone from the followers of the Prophet returns to the Quraysh, the Prophet will not have the right to demand his surrendering back, but if someone from the Quraysh, without permission of his/her proctor, joins the Prophet, the Prophet as per request of his/her proctor, should return him/her to the Quraysh.

5. Next year, the Prophet and his companions can come to Mecca freely and easily to perform the Hajj pilgrimage, but subject to two conditions, they should have no weapons other than a sword. Secondly, they do not stay in Mecca for more than three days.

However, His Holiness returned to Medina after stopping for twenty days in Hudaybiyah and preparing this Peace Pact. Then the following year, the seventh year of Hijri, His Holiness with two thousand Muslims came to Mecca for the Hajj pilgrimage, and after staying in Mecca for three days and performing the Hajj pilgrimage in Mecca, he returned to Medina. During the Muslim's stay in Mecca, the Quraysh, due to the intensity of jealousy and fear of confrontation with the Muslims, evacuated Mecca and stayed in the mountains of Mecca with tents, and after the Muslims left, they came back to Mecca.

Anyway, at the beginning of the seventh year of the Hijrah, the blessed verse "O people! I am the Messenger of God for all of you"[7] descended and according to this command, His Holiness decided to announce his Prophetic mission to the surroundings and to spread his message around the world and invite sultans and rulers of the world to Islam. Therefore, according to the counsel with the Companions, said to prepare a silver ring, and on the jewel of the ring engraved Mohammad, the Messenger of God, this was prepared to sign the letters. He wrote six letters to six kings. The first letter was to Najashi, king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), the second for Harcol, the emperor of Rome, the third to Kasrah Parviz, the king of Iran, the fourth for Maqwqas, the ruler of Alexandria, fifth to Harith bin Abi Shamar, ruler of Syria, sixth to Hudhat bin Ala' Hanafee, the governor of Yemen, and sent the letters by special delivery messengers to each of them and the original letters and their answers are recorded in the books of biographies with differences in the narrations.

Two years had passed since the Peace Pact of Hodayibiyah, and the eight-year Hijrah had arrived; during this short period, the Islamic world had changed a lot and had taken on a more stable and firm state. The Jews, who were the thorns of the path of progress and hindered the apparent progress of Islam, were removed from the scene, and the domain of Islam developed to some extent, and most of the tribes living around Medina brought faith, and the hypocrites of Medina were weak, humiliated and helpless and could not create any sedition. The immigrants who reached welfare relatively were saved from suffering, hardships, and deprivation, and the affairs of Medina and its suburbs were regulated to some extent and under the Prophet's authority and influence entirely. In this situation, a new event took place, and it was the dispute that arose between the tribe of Bani Bakr and Kanana, who were allies of the Quraysh, and the tribe of Bani Khazaah, who were allies of the Prophet which resulted in a war and the Bani Khazaah got the victory in the war. The Bani Bakr asked the Quraysh, their allies, for help against the Bani Khazaah. Contrary to the explicit text of the Peace Pact between them and the Prophet. Some of the elders of Quraysh attached the Bani Khazaah with some people as helpers of Bani Bakr and defeated them and killed twenty of them.

The Bani Khazaah complained to the Prophet about the Quraysh oppression; His Holiness sought to help the Bani Khuzaah per the rules of the Alliance. He sent a message to the Quraysh to either pay the blood money of the slain of Bani Khazaah who were attached against the provisions of the Peace Pact and renounce the support of the Bani Bakr, or to give back the Peace Pact of Hodaybiyah and abolish it and consider it as cancelled. Quraysh gave back the Peace Pact, which was considered a declaration of annulment of the Peace Pact or declaration of war against the Prophet, so His Holiness decided to attack Mecca, and for the decision to remain secret, he forbade the Meccans to correspond with Mecca. Then on the second day of Ramazan in the eight-year Hijrah, he left Medina and stopped in the Aqabah Well to parade the army.

The Emigrants were nine hundred with three hundred horses, the Ansars were four thousand with five hundred horses, and two thousand were from different tribes around Medina; while traversing towards Mecca, some groups gradually joined His Holiness, and they reached the outskirts of Mecca; they were approximately 12,000 people. Although the people of Mecca and Quraysh did not have accurate information on the departure of His Holiness because the breach of the covenant and annulment of the Peace Pact had occurred from them, they were anxious and afraid and expected a reaction from the Prophet. Therefore some of them, including Abbas bin Abdul Mattalab His Holiness' uncle, went to Medina with his family and, on the way, coincided with His Holiness and brought faith and a group of others such as Abu Sufyan and Hakim ibn Hazam who stood firm for infidelity and did not convert to Islam and were hesitant and confused in their work and some of them cultivated the idea of resistance in their imagination.

In the meantime, Abu Sufyan and Badil ibn Warqa to acquire news from around Mecca left the city and went towards the valley, where they suddenly found themselves in front of the large army of the Prophet; before they could turn back, the guards saw them and arrested them, In the meantime, Abbas the uncle of the Prophet passed by while riding on the mule of the Prophet and saw them being arrested and based on the friendship he had with Abu Sufyan, took them from the guards and brought him in the presence of His Holiness, and the companions who saw Abu Sufyan as the stubborn enemy and leader of the infidels' army, wanted to kill him. His Holiness (SAW) prevented them and invited him to Islam. Abu Sufyan reluctantly accepted Islam. Then the Holy Prophet (SAW) told him that before he goes to Mecca to announce to the people that those who go to the sacred Mosque without weapons or take refuge in the house of Abu Sufyan or go to their home and close the door would be safe.

His Holiness then paraded the army and divided it into four groups under four brigades and command of four people.

1. Zubair bin al-Awam

2. Khalid ibn Walid

3. Qais ibn Sa’d ibn Ibadah

4. Abu Obaydah bin Jarrah.

Arrangements and the area of each group from each side were determined to cover Mecca from all four sides, and His Holiness himself, with a few particular companions, went towards Mecca from one side. With the arrival of the Muslims, except for a small resistance from Akramah ibn Abi Jahl and Safwan bin Omayyah who confronted Khalid bin Walid and were defeated and fled and did not encounter any obstacles, the Holy Prophet (SAW) entered the Sacred Mosque (Masjid ul-Haram ) on the thirteenth or twentieth day of Ramazan in the eight-year of Hijri and circumambulated seven rounds around the House. Then he said to open the door of the Kaba'ah and broke all the idols of the House and some of the idols that were on the mantle of the House where the hands of the Prophet (SAW) did not reach; he told Ali (AS) to put his foot on his blessed shoulder and throw and crush them. Then he told the people of Mecca to gather in the Holy Mosque. Then he leaned on the wall of the Kaba'ah and said to the people, O people of Mecca! Now that I have domination over you and have overcome you, what do you think of my treatment of you, and what do you expect from me? Soheil ibn Omar replied on behalf of the people, we expect goodness and kindness and forgiveness and generosity from you, O brother and generous nephew. His Holiness said: I also say the same that my brother Yusef (AS) said to his brothers, "No reproof be against you this day"[8]. Then he said you all are free to return to your homes. According to differences in narrations, after staying in Mecca for 16 to 23 days and arranging the affairs of veiling of the Kabaah and water distribution of Zamzam and other internal affairs of Mecca. On the sixth day of Shawal appointed Atab bin Asid as the governor of Mecca, and he went towards Honayn with the army and ended the war of Honayn in a victory against infidels. Then he attended to the battle of Taif and ended it victoriously with conquest and victory, went towards Medina in safety and with booty of war and towards the end of Dhul Qadah or beginning of Dhul Hijjah entered Medina. Until the ninth year of Hijri reached and news in Medina was published that the Emperor of Rome had equipped an army to attack Medina.

The Holy Prophet (SAW) gathered the Muslims, equipped the army, and himself with the military went towards Syria and rode till the village of Tabuk, located between Medina and Damascus. Then he stayed there for twenty days, and because there was no trace of the Roman army, it appeared that the news about the emperor's intention to attack Medina was fake, and he returned to Medina. And this was the last battle of His Holiness, named the battle of Tabuk. And also, in this year, Surah of Bara'at was revealed, which commands the expulsion of the polytheist from the Kaba'ah, and the Prophet first declared it through Abu Bakr, but later due to divine command, he sent Ali (AS) after Abu Bakr to take the surah to Mecca and declare it to the people. And also, this year, the event of Mubahala (cursing each other) with the Christians of Najran arose, and His Holiness, according to the command: "Say: Come, "let us call our sons"[9].

Then the tenth year of the Hijrah reached, and His Holiness came to Mecca to perform the Hajj pilgrimage; after stopping for ten days and completing the Hajj rituals, he left for Medina and when he reached the land of Ghadir Johfa, which is known as Ghadir Khum, there to carry out the divine command and to convey the explicit divine command: "O Prophet! Announce what has been revealed to you from your Lord"[10] and its communication was emphasized with the content: "If you do not, you have not fulfilled your mission"[11] he was threatened from the abandonment of that communication. Meaning the appointment of Ali (AS) to the Caliphate and appointing him as successor and guardian over the people. He held and waited for the convoy who had remained behind to reach, and those who had gone forward returned them. Then he gathered around him all those who, according to some narrations, had been 70,000 people and said to arrange a pulpit of camel saddle in the middle of the crowd. Then he went on top of it; after giving a detailed sermon recorded in all books and biographies, he asked Ali (AS) to come to the pulpit. He took his arm and showed him to the people and said: "O' people! Whomever I am his master, now Ali is his master"[12], and with various phases and repeated statements following each other, he specified his Caliphate and successorship and determined his guardianship as a religious duty. Then he said that a special tent was to be set up for the people to pledge allegiance (Bayat) with Ali (AS), and in the presence of His Holiness, everyone pledged allegiance (Bayat) with Ali (AS). Including the second caliph, when pledging allegiance to Ali (AS), said: "Well done Ali, you have become my Lord and the Lord of every believing man and woman"[13].

After the announcement of the Divine command and the completion of the work, he moved to Medina, and after entering Medina, it was not long before he ordered to equip the army for war with Rome with the funds from the Emigrants and Ansars with the participation of the grandees of the companions and the grandeur companions issued and appointed Osamah bin Ziad as the ruling authority and commander in chief of the army and ordered him to leave for Damascus as soon as possible. Osamah, as per orders, left Mecca and, in a place called Arz Juruf, set up a camp, gathered the army, and prepared them to move. His Holiness also repeatedly and emphatically told the companions, "To equip Osamah's army, that the Curse of God is on anyone who refrains from it"[14]. However, as history says, some of the grandees of the companions were negligent and headless in going to the army camp. Incidentally, during those days, the Holy Prophet (SAW) fell ill, and his illness affected the hesitation and reflection of some of the companions who were ordered to leave with Osamah; their behaviour added to the violation of the order and non-attendance at the Army Camp. Therefore, Osamah's movements were delayed every day until the illness of His Holiness became severe, and when a group of companions came to visit him, he said: "Bring a pen and paper to write something for you so that you do not go astray after me" [15]. Some of those present hesitated and procrastinated in the execution of the command and made a mistake regarding the necessity of his blessed obligatory command, and uttered some words that were not eligible for the position of Prophethood, so His Holiness rejected them from his presence and finally, after 13 or 14 days of illness according to the differences of narrations his holy spirit left this world to meet his Lord on Monday 28th of Safar or 12th of Rabi ul-Awal of the eleventh year of the Hijrat and Amir al-Momenien Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS), with the help of Abbas and Fazl and Qasham the children of Abbas, bathed his holy body and three days his sacred body was not buried until Wednesday so that all Muslims could benefit from the blessings of the prayer on His Holiness. Then on Wednesday, his blessed body was buried in His Holiness' own house, where Aisha was resident. Peace of God be upon him, and peace be upon him and his Progeny. His blessed age at the time of his death was 63 years, forty years before the Prophetic Mission, thirteen years after the Prophetic Mission in Mecca and ten years after the Migration to Medina.

Wives of His Holiness: The marriage of His Holiness throughout his life was with eleven persons.

1. Khadijah bint Khuwaylid

2. Sawdah bint Zamah

3. Aishah bint Abu Bakr

4. Hafsah bint Umar

5. Zaynab bint Khuzaymah

6. Umme Salamah bint Hazeefah

7. Zaynab bint Jahsh

8. Juwayriyah bint al-Haarith

9. Umme Habiba bint Abu Sofyan

10. Safiyyah bint Huyayy ibn Akhtab

11. Maymunah bint Harith bin Jun

Two of these ladies, Khadijah bint Khuwaylid and Zaynab bint Khuzaymah, died during the lifetime of the Prophet, and the other nine were alive at the time of His Holiness' death. His Holiness, in addition to these ladies, who were free women and not bondswomen, he had some bondswomen who also received the honour of sleeping with His Holiness, one of them was Maria Qibtiyya, and she gave birth to a child from His Holiness by the name Ibrahim, who was famous among them.

The children of His Holiness

The children of His Holiness were seven; six were from the womb of Umm ul-Momenin bint Khuwaylid. There were four girls and two boys.

Sons: first: Qasim was his name that the patronym of His Holiness was taken from him, who was born before the Prophetic Mission and died at the age of two years. Second: Abdullah was born in Mecca and died as a child.

And Girls: first: Zainab, born in Mecca in the fifth year of marriage of His Holiness to Khadijah and passed away in the eighth year of Hijrat. Second: Roghayeh was born three years after Zainab's birth in Mecca and died in Medina in the ninth year of the Hijrah. Third: Omamah, named as Umme Kulthum, was born after Roghayeh and, in the ninth year of the Hijrat, died. Fourth: Fatemeh Zahra (SA), born in Jamadi al-Awal in the fifth year of the Prophetic Mission and in Shawal or Dhul Hijjah, married Ali (AS) in the second year of the Hijrah. And the seventh child of the Prophet was a boy named Ibrahim from the womb of Maria Qibtiyya, the slave girl of His Holiness who was born in the eighth year of the Hijrah and died in the tenth year of the Hijrah and His Holiness during his death had no other child except Fatemah (SA).

The miracles of His Holiness

His Holiness' miracles and generosities cannot be counted, but the most important of them are:

1. Quran Karim

2. Splitting of the moon

3. Cursing with the Christians of Najran.

Statements and wise sayings of His Holiness are so many; that is out of reach of counting; a part of them has been collected, printed and published in a book called “Nahjul Fasahah” (Height of Rhetoric ).

His contemporaries from Kings of the world and Rulers of time

In Iran:

1 - Kasra Anoushiravan;

2- Hermazban Anoushiravan

3- Khosrow Parviz

4- Shiroyah

5 - Yazdjard Shahriar.


In Ethiopia


In Rome:

1 - Mauritius;

2 – Heraclius, known as Hercules.

In Damascus:

1 - Iham bin Jabalah;

2 - Munzer bin Jabalah

3 - Sharahil bin Jabalah

4 - Harith bin Shamar.

In Yemen:

1 - Saif bin Dhi Yazen

2 – Hariz

3 - Marzban Bin Hariz

4- Huzat bin Ali Hanafi.

In Hayrat (Iraq)

1- Qaboos bin Monzer

2- Monzer bin Maa-o-Samaa

3- Numan bin Monzer.

In Alexandria:


During the lifetime of that Prophet, four false claimants of Prophethood were found who falsely claimed Prophethood, and for a short time, their lies became apparent, and they were disgraced:

1. Musailamah bin Shamamah

2- Sajah bint Harith bin Sweid;

3 - Aswad bin Ka'b Anasi;

4- Taliheh bin Khowaylid Asadi.


[1] Refers to Surah: An-Najm, Verse 9.

[2] Refers to Surah: An-Najm, Verse 9.

[3] Surah: Al-Alaq, Verse 1. اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ

[4] Surah: Al-Hijr, Verse 94. فَاصْدَعْ بِمَا تُؤْمَرُ وَأَعْرِضْ عَنِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

[5] Surah: Al-Isra, Verse 1. سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَى بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلًا

[6] Surah: Al-Qalam, Verse 4. وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ

[7] Surah: Al-AAraf, Verse 158. قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا

[8] Surah: Yousuf, Verse 92. لَا تَثْرِيبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْيَوْمَ

[9] Surah: Ale Imran, Verse 61.

فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَنْفُسَنَا وَأَنْفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَلْ لَعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِينَ

According to the authentic narrations, the cursing did not occur

[10] Surah: Al-Maidah, Verse 67.

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ

[11] Surah: Al-Maidah, Verse 67.

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ

[12] یا ایّها النّاس مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَهَذَا عَلِيٌّ مَوْلَاهُ

[13]بَخْ‏ بَخْ‏ لَکَ یَا علی، أَصْبَحْتَ مَوْلَایَ وَ مَوْلَى کُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ وَ مُؤْمِنَة

[14]جهزوا جیش أسامة، لعن الله من تخلف عن جیش أسامة

[15]هلموا الیِّ اكتب لكم كتاباً لن تضلوا بعدي بداً




صفحه اصلي - سلسله اولياء - كتب عرفاني - پند صالح - تصاوير - بيانيه‌ها - پيوند - جستجو - يادبود - مكاتبه - نقشه سايت - اعلانات

استفاده و كپی برداری از منابع، مطالب، محتوی و شكل این سایت با رعایت امانت و درستی آزاد است.

تصوف ايران ۱۳۸۵

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